Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May 1;302(10):E1157-70. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00351.2011. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

Update on adipose tissue blood flow regulation.

Sotornik R1, Brassard P, Martin E, Yale P, Carpentier AC, Ardilouze JL.

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Abstract

According to Fick's principle, any metabolic or hormonal exchange through a given tissue depends on the product of the blood flow to that tissue and the arteriovenous difference. The proper function of adipose tissue relies on adequate adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF), which determines the influx and efflux of metabolites as well as regulatory endocrine signals. Adequate functioning of adipose tissue in intermediary metabolism requires finely tuned perfusion. Because metabolic and vascular processes are so tightly interconnected, any disruption in one will necessarily impact the other. Although altered ATBF is one consequence of expanding fat tissue, it may also aggravate the negative impacts of obesity on the body's metabolic milieu. This review attempts to summarize the current state of knowledge on adipose tissue vascular bed behavior under physiological conditions and the various factors that contribute to its regulation as well as the possible participation of altered ATBF in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome.

 

Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Aug;38(8):1019-26. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.200. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Regulation of human subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow.

Frayn KN1, Karpe F2.

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Abstract

Subcutaneous adipose tissue represents about 85% of all body fat. Its major metabolic role is the regulated storage and mobilization of lipid energy. It stores lipid in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), which is mobilized, as required for use by other tissues, in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Neither TG nor NEFA are soluble to any extent in water, and their transport to and out of the tissue requires specialized transport mechanisms and adequate blood flow. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is therefore tightly linked to the tissue's metabolic functioning. ATBF is relatively high (in the fasting state, similar to that of resting skeletal muscle, when expressed per 100 g tissue) and changes markedly in different physiological states. Those most studied are after ingestion of a meal, when there is normally a marked rise in ATBF, and exercise, when ATBF also increases. Pharmacological studies have helped to define the physiological regulation of ATBF. Adrenergic influences predominate in most situations, but nevertheless the regulation of ATBF is complex and depends on the interplay of many different systems. ATBF is downregulated in obesity (when expressed per 100 g tissue), and its responsiveness to meal intake is reduced. However, there is little evidence that this leads to adipose tissue hypoxia in human obesity, and we suggest that, like the downregulation of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis seen in obesity, the reduction in ATBF represents an adaptation to the increased fat mass. Most information on ATBF has been obtained from studying the subcutaneous abdominal fat depot, but more limited information on lower-body fat depots suggests some similarities, but also some differences: in particular, marked alpha-adrenergic tone, which can reduce the femoral ATBF response to adrenergic stimuli.

 

World J Diabetes. 2015 May 15;6(4):626-33. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i4.626.

Insulin action in muscle and adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes: The significance of blood flow.

Lambadiari V1, Triantafyllou K1, Dimitriadis GD1.

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Abstract

Under normal metabolic conditions insulin stimulates microvascular perfusion (capillary recruitment) of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue and thus increases blood flow mainly after meal ingestion or physical exercise. This helps the delivery of insulin itself but also that of substrates and of other signalling molecules to multiple tissues beds and facilitates glucose disposal and lipid kinetics. This effect is impaired in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes early in the development of metabolic dysregulation and reflects early-onset endothelial dysfunction. Failure of insulin to increase muscle and adipose tissue blood flow results in decreased glucose handling. In fat depots, a blunted postprandial blood flow response will result in an insufficient suppression of lipolysis and an increased spill over of fatty acids in the circulation, leading to a more pronounced insulin resistant state in skeletal muscle. This defect in blood flow response is apparent even in the prediabetic state, implying that it is a facet of insulin resistance and exists long before overt hyperglycaemia develops. The following review intends to summarize the contribution of blood flow impairment to the development of the atherogenic dysglycemia and dyslipidaemia.

 

 

Lasers Surg Med. 2015 Oct;47(8):634-42. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22395. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment.

Sene-Fiorese M1, Duarte FO2, de Aquino Junior AE1,3, Campos RM4, Masquio DC4, Tock L5, de Oliveira Duarte AC6, Dâmaso AR4, Parizotto NA2,3, Bagnato VS1,3.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women.

STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sixty-four obese women (BMI 30-40 kg/m2 , age between 20 and 40 years old) were randomly assigned in two groups: Exercise Training plus SHAM group (ET-SHAM, n = 32) and Exercise Training plus Phototherapy group (ET-PHOTO, n = 32). The treatment consisted in physical exercise intervention and the individual application of phototherapy immediately after the end of the training session. However, in the ET-SHAM group the device was turned off simulating the phototherapy application (placebo effect). The study protocol lasted for 20 weeks and comprised of three weekly sessions of aerobic plus resistance training and application of phototherapy (when applicable). The body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed (HOMA, adiponectin, insulin, glucose).

RESULTS:

Comparing the magnitude of effects between groups (ET-PHOTO vs. ET-SHAM), we observed that physical training plus phototherapy was more effective than physical training in reducing the delta of percentage of fat mass (%; -5.60 ± 1.59 vs. -4.33 ± 1.5; P < 0.04); fat mass (kg; -11.26 ± 2.82 vs. -5.80 ± 2.82; P < 0.0002); HOMA-IR index (-38.08 ± 9.23 vs. -20.91 ± 14.42; P < 0.0001). In addition, we observed an increase in delta (%) of total skeletal muscle mass (kg; 0.60 ± 1.09 vs. -1.38 ± 1.70; P < 0.003), adiponectin concentration (ng/ml; 1.08 (0.04-3.62) vs. -0.42 (-3.15 to 2.26); P < 0.03) in the same comparison.

CONCLUSION:

Our results demonstrated for the first time that phototherapy enhances the physical exercise effects in obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic profile.

 

Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Jul;30(5):1553-63. doi: 10.1007/s10103-015-1759-9. Epub 2015 May 10.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with aerobic plus resistance training to improve inflammatory biomarkers in obese adults.

da Silveira Campos RM1, Dâmaso AR, Masquio DC, Aquino AE Jr, Sene-Fiorese M, Duarte FO, Tock L, Parizotto NA, Bagnato VS.

Author information

Abstract

Recently, investigations suggest the benefits of low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in noninvasive treatment of cellulite, improvement of body countering, and control of lipid profile. However, the underlying key mechanism for such potential effects associated to aerobic plus resistance training to reduce body fat and inflammatory process, related to obesity in women still unclear. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of combined therapy of LLLT and aerobic plus resistance training in inflammatory profile and body composition of obese women. For this study, it involved 40 obese women with age of 20-40 years. Inclusion criteria were primary obesity and body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m(2) and less than 40 kg/m(2). The voluntaries were allocated in two different groups: phototherapy group and SHAM group. The interventions consisted on physical exercise training and application of phototherapy (808 nm), immediately after the physical exercise, with special designed device. Proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory adipokines were measured. It was showed that LLLT associated to physical exercise is more effective than physical exercise alone to increase adiponectin concentration, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. Also, it showed reduced values of neck circumference (cm), insulin concentration (μU/ml), and interleukin-6 (pg/ml) in LLLT group. In conclusion, phototherapy can be an important tool in the obesity, mostly considering its potential effects associated to exercise training in attenuating inflammation in women, being these results applicable in the clinical practices to control related risk associated to obesity.

 

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015 Dec;153:103-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.08.026. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Can low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with an aerobic plus resistance training change the cardiometabolic risk in obese women? A placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Duarte FO1, Sene-Fiorese M2, de Aquino Junior AE3, da Silveira Campos RM4, Masquio DC4, Tock L5, Garcia de Oliveira Duarte AC6, Dâmaso AR4, Bagnato VS7, Parizotto NA3.

Author information

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Obesity is one of the most important link factors to coronary artery disease development mainly due to the pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic states favoring atherosclerosis progression. The LLLT acts in the cellular metabolism and it is highly effective to improve inflammation. The same occur in response to different kinds of exercise. However, we have not known the associate effects using LLLT therapies with aerobic plus resistance training as strategy specifically with target at human obesity control and its comorbidities.

OBJECTIVE:

Investigate the effects of the LLLT associated with aerobic plus resistance training on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women.

METHODOLOGY:

Women aged 20-40years (BMI≥30kg/m(2)), were divided into 2 groups: Phototherapy (PHOTO) and Placebo. They were trained aerobic plus resistance exercises (in a concurrent mode), 1h, 3times/week during 16weeks. Phototherapy was applied after each exercise session for 16min, with infrared laser, wavelength 808nm, continuous output, power 100mW, and energy delivery 50J. The body composition was measured with bioimpedance. Inflammatory mark concentrations were measured using a commercially available multiplex.

RESULTS:

LLLT associated with aerobic plus resistance training was effective in decrease neck (P=0.0003) and waist circumferences (P=0.02); percentual of fat (P=0.04); visceral fat area (P=0.02); HOMA-IR (P=0.0009); Leptin (P=0.03) and ICAM (P=0.03). Also, the reduction in leptin (P=0.008) and ICAM-1 (0, 05) was much more expressive in the phototherapy group in comparison to placebo group when analyzed by delta values.

CONCLUSION:

LLLT associated with concurrent exercise (aerobic plus resistance training) potentiates the exercise effects of decreasing the cardiometabolic risk factors in obese woman. These results suggest the LLLT associated with exercises as a new therapeutic tool in the control of obesity and its comorbidities for obese people, targeting to optimize the strategies to control the cardiometabolic risk factors in these populations.

 

Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2016 Sep 12. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.136. [Epub ahead of print]

Brown adipose tissue as a secretory organ.

Villarroya F1,2, Cereijo R2, Villarroya J2, Giralt M1,2.

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Abstract

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main site of adaptive thermogenesis and experimental studies have associated BAT activity with protection against obesity and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Active BAT is present in adult humans and its activity is impaired in patients with obesity. The ability of BAT to protect against chronic metabolic disease has traditionally been attributed to its capacity to utilize glucose and lipids for thermogenesis. However, BAT might also have a secretory role, which could contribute to the systemic consequences of BAT activity. Several BAT-derived molecules that act in a paracrine or autocrine manner have been identified. Most of these factors promote hypertrophy and hyperplasia of BAT, vascularization, innervation and blood flow, processes that are all associated with BAT recruitment when thermogenic activity is enhanced. Additionally, BAT can release regulatory molecules that act on other tissues and organs. This secretory capacity of BAT is thought to be involved in the beneficial effects of BAT transplantation in rodents. Fibroblast growth factor 21, IL-6 and neuregulin 4 are among the first BAT-derived endocrine factors to be identified. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding of the regulatory molecules (the so-called brown adipokines or batokines) that are released by BAT that influence systemic metabolism and convey the beneficial metabolic effects of BAT activation. The identification of such adipokines might also direct drug discovery approaches for managing obesity and its associated chronic metabolic diseases.

 

Lasers Med Sci. 2015 Jul;30(5):1553-63. doi: 10.1007/s10103-015-1759-9. Epub 2015 May 10.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with aerobic plus resistance training to improve inflammatory biomarkers in obese adults.

da Silveira Campos RM1, Dâmaso AR, Masquio DC, Aquino AE Jr, Sene-Fiorese M, Duarte FO, Tock L, Parizotto NA, Bagnato VS.

Author information

Abstract

Recently, investigations suggest the benefits of low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in noninvasive treatment of cellulite, improvement of body countering, and control of lipid profile. However, the underlying key mechanism for such potential effects associated to aerobic plus resistance training to reduce body fat and inflammatory process, related to obesity in women still unclear. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of combined therapy of LLLT and aerobic plus resistance training in inflammatory profile and body composition of obese women. For this study, it involved 40 obese women with age of 20-40 years. Inclusion criteria were primary obesity and body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m(2) and less than 40 kg/m(2). The voluntaries were allocated in two different groups: phototherapy group and SHAM group. The interventions consisted on physical exercise training and application of phototherapy (808 nm), immediately after the physical exercise, with special designed device. Proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory adipokines were measured. It was showed that LLLT associated to physical exercise is more effective than physical exercise alone to increase adiponectin concentration, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. Also, it showed reduced values of neck circumference (cm), insulin concentration (μU/ml), and interleukin-6 (pg/ml) in LLLT group. In conclusion, phototherapy can be an important tool in the obesity, mostly considering its potential effects associated to exercise training in attenuating inflammation in women, being these results applicable in the clinical practices to control related risk associated to obesity.

 

J Biophotonics. 2016 Sep 16. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201600088.

Photobiomodulation reduces abdominal adipose tissue inflammatory infiltrate of diet-induced obese and hyperglycemic mice.

Yoshimura TM1,2, Sabino CP3, Ribeiro MS4.

Author information

Abstract

Systemic inflammation is closely related to the development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, since the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways leads to inhibition of insulin signaling. Although photobiomodulation (PBM) has proven beneficial effects on the treatment of inflammatory disorders, the phototherapeutic approach to manage the chronic inflammatory component of obesity and hyperglycemia had never been explored. In this work, obese and hyperglycemic mice are treated with PBM, and their body mass, glycemia and inflammatory infiltrate of abdominal adipose tissue are evaluated. During four weeks, irradiated animals are exposed to six irradiation sessions using an 843 nm LED (5.7 J cm-2 at 19 mW cm-2 per session). Non-irradiated control animals display inflammatory areas almost five times greater than the treated group (p < 0.001). This result on inflammatory infiltrate may have caused impacts on the significant lower blood glucose level from irradiated animals (p = 0.04), twenty-four hours after the last irradiation session. PBM on obese and hyperglycemic mice reduced five times the areas of inflammatory infiltrate within abdominal adipose tissue (a, b), whereas dense inflammatory regions were a common finding amidst non-irradiated animals (c). The asterisks on (c) correspond to the inflammatory infiltrate permeating adipocytes.

 

2017 Dec 15. doi: 10.1007/s10103-017-2408-2.
Infrared photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy improves glucose metabolism and intracellular insulin pathway in adipose tissue of high-fat fed mice.

Abstract

Obesity represents a continuously growing global epidemic and is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The etiology of type 2 diabetes is related to the resistance of insulin-sensitive tissues to its action leading to impaired blood glucose regulation. Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy might be a non-pharmacological, non-invasive strategy to improve insulin resistance. It has been reported that PBM therapy in combination with physical exercise reduces insulin resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PBM therapy on insulin resistance in obese mice. Male Swiss albino mice received low-fat control diet (n = 16, LFC) or high-fat diet (n = 18, HFD) for 12 weeks. From 9th to 12th week, the mice received PBM therapy (LASER) or Sham (light off) treatment and were allocated into four groups: LFC Sham (n = 8), LFC PBM (n = 8), HFD Sham (n = 9), and HFD PBM (n = 9). The PBM therapy was applied in five locations: to the left and right quadriceps muscle, upper limbs and center of the abdomen, during 40 s at each point, once a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks (780 nm, 250 mW/cm2, 10 J/cm2, 0.4 J per site; 2 J total dose per day). Insulin signaling pathway was evaluated in the epididymal adipose tissue. PBM therapy improved glucose tolerance and phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and reversed the HFD-induced reduction of GLUT4 content and phosphorylation of AS160 (Ser588). Also, PBM therapy reversed the increased area of epididymal and mesenteric adipocytes. The results showed that chronic PBM therapy improved parameters related to obesity and insulin resistance in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

 

2017 Nov 29. doi: 10.1007/s10103-017-2396-2.
When is the best moment to apply photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) when associated to a treadmill endurance-training program? A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Abstract

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) employing low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and/or light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) has emerged as an electrophysical intervention that could be associated with aerobic training to enhance beneficial effects of aerobic exercise. However, the best moment to perform irradiation with PBMT in aerobic training has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of PBMT applied before and/or after each training session and to evaluate outcomes of the endurance-training program associated with PBMT. Seventy-seven healthy volunteers completed the treadmill-training protocol performed for 12 weeks, with 3 sessions per week. PBMT was performed before and/or after each training session (17 sites on each lower limb, using a cluster of 12 diodes: 4 × 905 nm super-pulsed laser diodes, 4 × 875 nm infrared LEDs, and 4 × 640 nm red LEDs, dose of 30 J per site). Volunteers were randomized in four groups according to the treatment they would receive before and after each training session: PBMT before + PBMT after, PBMT before + placebo after, placebo before + PBMT after, and placebo before + placebo after. Assessments were performed before the start of the protocol and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. Primary outcome was time until exhaustion; secondary outcome measures were oxygen uptake and body fat. PBMT applied before and after aerobic exercise training sessions (PBMT before + PBMT after group) significantly increased (p < 0.05) the percentage of change of time until exhaustion and oxygen uptake compared to the group treated with placebo before and after aerobic exercise training sessions (placebo before + placebo after group) at 4th, 8th, and 12th week. PBMT applied before and after aerobic exercise training sessions (PBMT before + PBMT after group) also significantly improved (p < 0.05) the percentage of change of body fat compared to the group treated with placebo before and after aerobic exercise training sessions (placebo before + placebo after group) at 8th and 12th week. PBMT applied before and after sessions of aerobic training during 12 weeks can increase the time-to-exhaustion and oxygen uptake and also decrease the body fat in healthy volunteers when compared to placebo irradiation before and after exercise sessions. Our outcomes show that PBMT applied before and after endurance-training exercise sessions lead to improvement of endurance three times faster than exercise only.

 

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